Micronaut Azure HTTP Functions

Learn how to create an Azure HTTP Function with the Micronaut framework

Authors: Sergio del Amo

Micronaut Version: 3.2.7

1. Getting Started

In this guide, we will create a Micronaut application written in Groovy.

2. What you will need

To complete this guide, you will need the following:

  • Some time on your hands

  • A decent text editor or IDE

  • JDK 1.8 or greater installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

3. Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

4. Writing the App

Create an application using the Micronaut Command Line Interface or with Micronaut Launch.

mn create-app example.micronaut.micronautguide --features=azure-function --build=gradle --lang=groovy
If you don’t specify the --build argument, Gradle is used as the build tool.
If you don’t specify the --lang argument, Java is used as the language.

The previous command creates a Micronaut application with the default package example.micronaut in a directory named micronautguide.

If you use Micronaut Launch, select "Micronaut Application" as application type and add the azure-function feature.

5. Azure CLI

Install Azure CLI

Azure CLI is a set of commands used to create and manage Azure resources. The Azure CLI is available across Azure services and is designed to get you working quickly with Azure, with an emphasis on automation.

6. Azure Functions Core Tools

Azure Function Core Tools includes a version of the same runtime that powers Azure Functions runtime that you can run on your local development computer. It also provides commands to create functions, connect to Azure, and deploy function projects.

7. Function

The created application contains class which extends AzureHttpFunction

package example.micronaut
import com.microsoft.azure.functions.annotation.*
import com.microsoft.azure.functions.*
import io.micronaut.azure.function.http.AzureHttpFunction

 * Azure Functions with HTTP Trigger.
class Function extends AzureHttpFunction {
     * This function listens at endpoint "/api/*". Two ways to invoke it using "curl" command in bash:
     * 1. curl -d "HTTP Body" {your host}/api/*&code={your function key}
     * 2. curl "{your host}/api/*?name=HTTP%20Query&code={your function key}"
     * Function Key is not needed when running locally, it is used to invoke function deployed to Azure.
     * More details: https://aka.ms/functions_authorization_keys
    HttpResponseMessage invoke(
                name = "req",
                methods = [HttpMethod.GET, HttpMethod.POST],
                route = "{*route}",
                authLevel = AuthorizationLevel.ANONYMOUS)
                HttpRequestMessage<Optional<String>> request,
                final ExecutionContext context) {
        return super.route(request, context)

When you write a Micronaut Azure HTTP function, you will write your application as you will normally do when developing outside of Azure functions. That it is to say, you will create routes with classes annotated with @Controller. The above class bridges both worlds. It adapts from an Azure to a Micronaut HTTP Request, and based on the route, it delegates to the appropriate Micronaut controller.

8. Controller

The generated application contains a Controller which exposes two routes (GET and POST):

package example.micronaut

import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Post
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Body
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Produces
import io.micronaut.http.MediaType
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Introspected
import groovy.transform.TupleConstructor

class MicronautguideController {

    String index() {
        "Example Response"

    SampleReturnMessage postMethod(@Body SampleInputMessage inputMessage){
      new SampleReturnMessage(returnMessage: "Hello ${inputMessage.name}, thank you for sending the message")

class SampleInputMessage{
    String name

class SampleReturnMessage{
    String returnMessage
  • The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /micronautguide

  • The @Get annotation maps the index method to all requests that use an HTTP GET.

  • By default a Micronaut response uses application/json as Content-Type. index method returns a String not a JSON object. Because of that, we set the response content-type to text/plain with the @Produces annotation.

  • The @Post annotation maps the postMethod method to all requests that use an HTTP GET.

  • Annotate the class with @Introspected to generate BeanIntrospection metadata at compilation time. This information can be used, for example, to the render the POJO as JSON using Jackson without using reflection.

9. Tests

The generated application contains a test which shows how to write a Micronaut Azure HTTP Function tests.

package example.micronaut;
import com.microsoft.azure.functions.HttpStatus
import io.micronaut.azure.function.http.HttpRequestMessageBuilder
import io.micronaut.http.HttpMethod
import spock.lang.*

class MicronautguideFunctionSpec extends Specification {

    @Shared @AutoCleanup
    Function function = new Function()

    void "test function"() {
        when:"The function is executed"
        HttpRequestMessageBuilder.AzureHttpResponseMessage response =
            function.request(HttpMethod.GET, "/micronautguide")

        then:"The response is correct"
        response.status == HttpStatus.OK
  • Instantiating the function starts the Micronaut application context.

10. Testing the Application

To run the tests:

./gradlew test

Then open build/reports/tests/test/index.html in a browser to see the results.

11. Running the Application

The generated application includes the Azure Functions plugin for Gradle

To run the application use the ./gradlew azureFunctionsRun command which will start the application on port 8080.

You can invoke the GET route:

curl -i localhost:7071/api/micronautguide
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sat, 08 May 2021 03:55:11 GMT
Content-Type: text/plain
Server: Kestrel
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

Example Response

or the POST route:

curl -i -d '{"name":"John Snow"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST http://localhost:7071/api/micronautguide
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sat, 08 May 2021 03:57:56 GMT
Content-Type: application/json
Server: Kestrel
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

{"returnMessage":"Hello John Snow, thank you for sending the message"}

12. Create Azure Function App

Create a Function App in the Microsoft Azure Portal. If you prefer, use the Azure CLI.

azure functions 1
azure functions 2
azure functions 3

12.1. Basics | Create Function App


  • Runtime stack: Java

  • Version: 11

  • Region Central US

azure functions 4

12.2. Hosting | Create Function App

azure functions 5


  • Operating System: Windows.

  • Plan type: Consumption.

12.3. Monitoring | Create Function App

Enable Application Insights.

azure functions 6

12.4. Tags | Create Function App

azure functions 7

12.5. Review & Create | Create Function App

azure functions 8

13. Deploy Azure Function App

Login to azure portal in your terminal.

az login

Edit build.gradle. Set the azurefunctions extension values to match the values you introduced in the Microsoft Azure Portal.

Use ./gradlew azureFunctionsDeploy to deploy your Azure Function App.

./gradlew azureFunctionsDeploy
Successfully updated the function app testmicronaut.
Trying to deploy the function app...
Trying to deploy artifact to testmicronaut...
Successfully deployed the artifact to https://storageaccountexamp9ec5.blob.core.windows.net/java-functions-run-from-packages/subscriptions-9825e0b9-244a-4eeb-9194-d3e8123fe1a0-resourceGroups-examplemicronaut-providers-Microsoft.Web-sites-testmicronaut-testmicronaut.zip
Successfully deployed the function app at https://testmicronaut.azurewebsites.net

If you visit https://testmicronaut.azurewebsites.net/ you will get an HTML page informing you that the function is up and running.

You can invoke the GET route:

curl -i https://testmicronaut.azurewebsites.net/api/micronautguide
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Example Response

15. Help with the Micronaut Framework

Object Computing, Inc. (OCI) sponsored the creation of this Guide. A variety of consulting and support services are available.