Access a database with MyBatis

Learn how to access a database with MyBatis using the Micronaut framework.

Authors: Iván López, Sergio del Amo

Micronaut Version: 3.7.0

1. Getting Started

Learn how to access a database with MyBatis using the Micronaut framework.

2. What you will need

To complete this guide, you will need the following:

  • Some time on your hands

  • A decent text editor or IDE

  • JDK 1.8 or greater installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

3. Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

4. Writing the Application

Create an application using the Micronaut Command Line Interface or with Micronaut Launch.

mn create-app example.micronaut.micronautguide --build=gradle --lang=groovy
If you don’t specify the --build argument, Gradle is used as the build tool.
If you don’t specify the --lang argument, Java is used as the language.

The previous command creates a Micronaut application with the default package example.micronaut in a directory named micronautguide.

4.1. Configure Data Source and JPA

Add the following snippet to include the necessary dependencies:

build.gradle
implementation("org.mybatis:mybatis:3.5.10") (1)
implementation("io.micronaut.sql:micronaut-jdbc-hikari") (2)
runtimeOnly("com.h2database:h2") (3)
1 Add MyBatis dependency.
2 Configures SQL DataSource instances using Hikari Connection Pool.
3 Add dependency to in-memory H2 Database.

Define the data source in src/main/resources/application.yml.

src/main/resources/application.yml
datasources:
  default:
    url: jdbc:h2:mem:default;DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1;DB_CLOSE_ON_EXIT=FALSE
    username: sa
    password: ""
    driverClassName: org.h2.Driver

4.2. MyBatis configuration

As there is no out-of-the-box support yet in the Micronaut framework for MyBatis, it is necessary to manually wire SqlSessionFactory.

Create the following @Factory class:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/MybatisFactory.groovy
package example.micronaut

import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Factory
import jakarta.inject.Singleton
import org.apache.ibatis.mapping.Environment
import org.apache.ibatis.session.Configuration
import org.apache.ibatis.session.SqlSessionFactory
import org.apache.ibatis.session.SqlSessionFactoryBuilder
import org.apache.ibatis.transaction.TransactionFactory
import org.apache.ibatis.transaction.jdbc.JdbcTransactionFactory

import javax.sql.DataSource

@CompileStatic
@Factory (1)
class MybatisFactory {

    private final DataSource dataSource (2)

    MybatisFactory(DataSource dataSource) {
        this.dataSource = dataSource (2)
    }

    @Singleton (3)
    SqlSessionFactory sqlSessionFactory() {
        TransactionFactory transactionFactory = new JdbcTransactionFactory()

        Environment environment = new Environment('dev', transactionFactory, dataSource) (4)
        Configuration configuration = new Configuration(environment)
        configuration.addMappers('example.micronaut') (5)

        new SqlSessionFactoryBuilder().build(configuration) (6)
    }

}
1 Annotate the class with @Factory.
2 Use constructor injection to inject a bean of type DataSource.
3 Define a @Bean of type SqlSessionFactory.
4 Use the dataSource to create a new MyBatis environment.
5 Define the package to scan for mappers.
6 Create a new SqlSessionFactory bean.

4.3. Domain

Create the domain entities:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/domain/Genre.groovy
package example.micronaut.domain

import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonIgnore
import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Introspected
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Nullable

import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull

@CompileStatic
@Introspected
class Genre {

    @Nullable
    Long id

    @NotNull
    @NonNull
    String name

    @NonNull
    @JsonIgnore
    Set<Book> books = []

    Genre(@NonNull @NotNull String name) {
        this.name = name
    }

    @Override
    String toString() {
        "Genre{id=$id, name='$name', books=$books}"
    }
}
src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/domain/Book.groovy
package example.micronaut.domain

import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Introspected
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Nullable

import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull

@CompileStatic
@Introspected
class Book {

    @Nullable
    Long id

    @NonNull
    @NotNull
    String name

    @NonNull
    @NotNull
    String isbn

    Genre genre

    Book(@NonNull @NotNull String isbn,
         @NonNull @NotNull String name,
         Genre genre) {
        this.isbn = isbn
        this.name = name
        this.genre = genre
    }

    @Override
    String toString() {
        "Book{id=$id, name='$name', isbn='$isbn', genre=$genre}"
    }
}

4.4. Repository Access

Create an interface to define the operations to access the database and use MyBatis annotations to map the methods to SQL queries:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/genre/GenreMapper.groovy
package example.micronaut.genre

import example.micronaut.domain.Genre
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Delete
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Insert
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Options
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Param
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Select
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Update

import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull
import javax.validation.constraints.Pattern
import javax.validation.constraints.Positive
import javax.validation.constraints.PositiveOrZero

interface GenreMapper {

    @Select('select * from genre where id=#{id}')
    Genre findById(long id)

    @Insert('insert into genre(name) values(#{name})')
    @Options(useGeneratedKeys = true, keyProperty = 'id')
    void save(Genre genre)

    @Delete('delete from genre where id=#{id}')
    void deleteById(long id)

    @Update('update genre set name=#{name} where id=#{id}')
    void update(@Param('id') long id, @Param('name') String name)

    @Select('select * from genre')
    List<Genre> findAll()

    @Select('select * from genre order by ${sort} ${order}')
    List<Genre> findAllBySortAndOrder(@NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'id|name') String sort,
                                      @NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'asc|ASC|desc|DESC') String order)

    @Select('select * from genre order by ${sort} ${order} limit ${offset}, ${max}')
    List<Genre> findAllByOffsetAndMaxAndSortAndOrder(@PositiveOrZero int offset,
                                                     @Positive int max,
                                                     @NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'id|name') String sort,
                                                     @NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'asc|ASC|desc|DESC') String order)

    @Select('select * from genre limit ${offset}, ${max}')
    List<Genre> findAllByOffsetAndMax(@PositiveOrZero int offset, @Positive int max)
}

And the implementation:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/genre/GenreMapperImpl.groovy
package example.micronaut.genre

import example.micronaut.domain.Genre
import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import jakarta.inject.Singleton
import org.apache.ibatis.session.SqlSession
import org.apache.ibatis.session.SqlSessionFactory

import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull
import javax.validation.constraints.Pattern
import javax.validation.constraints.Positive
import javax.validation.constraints.PositiveOrZero

@CompileStatic
@Singleton (1)
class GenreMapperImpl implements GenreMapper {

    private final SqlSessionFactory sqlSessionFactory (2)

    GenreMapperImpl(SqlSessionFactory sqlSessionFactory) {
        this.sqlSessionFactory = sqlSessionFactory (2)
    }

    @Override
    Genre findById(long id) {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) { (3)
            return getGenreMapper(sqlSession).findById(id) (5)
        }
    }

    @Override
    void save(Genre genre) {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) {
            getGenreMapper(sqlSession).save(genre)
            sqlSession.commit() (6)
        }
    }

    @Override
    void deleteById(long id) {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) {
            getGenreMapper(sqlSession).deleteById(id)
            sqlSession.commit()
        }
    }

    @Override
    void update(long id, String name) {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) {
            getGenreMapper(sqlSession).update(id, name)
            sqlSession.commit()
        }
    }

    @Override
    List<Genre> findAll() {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) {
            return getGenreMapper(sqlSession).findAll()
        }
    }

    @Override
    List<Genre> findAllBySortAndOrder(@NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'id|name') String sort,
                                      @NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'asc|ASC|desc|DESC') String order) {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) {
            return getGenreMapper(sqlSession).findAllBySortAndOrder(sort, order)
        }
    }

    @Override
    List<Genre> findAllByOffsetAndMaxAndSortAndOrder(@PositiveOrZero int offset,
                                                     @Positive int max,
                                                     @NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'id|name') String sort,
                                                     @NotNull @Pattern(regexp = 'asc|ASC|desc|DESC') String order) {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) {
            return getGenreMapper(sqlSession).findAllByOffsetAndMaxAndSortAndOrder(offset, max, sort, order)
        }
    }

    @Override
    List<Genre> findAllByOffsetAndMax(@PositiveOrZero int offset,
                                      @Positive int max) {
        try (SqlSession sqlSession = sqlSessionFactory.openSession()) {
            return getGenreMapper(sqlSession).findAllByOffsetAndMax(offset, max)
        }
    }

    private GenreMapper getGenreMapper(SqlSession sqlSession) {
        sqlSession.getMapper(GenreMapper) (4)
    }
}
1 Use jakarta.inject.Singleton to designate a class as a singleton.
2 Easily inject the SqlSessionFactory bean created by the @Factory.
3 Use try-with-resources to automatically close the SQL session.
4 Get MyBatis mapper implementation for the interface.
5 Execute the desired method using the mapper. This will trigger the SQL query.
6 In a database write access, commit the transaction.

Create an interface to define the high level operations exposed to the application:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/genre/GenreRepository.groovy
package example.micronaut.genre

import example.micronaut.ListingArguments
import example.micronaut.domain.Genre
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull

import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank
import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull

interface GenreRepository {

    @NonNull
    Optional<Genre> findById(long id)

    @NonNull
    Genre save(@NonNull @NotBlank String name)

    void deleteById(long id)

    @NonNull
    List<Genre> findAll(@NonNull @NotNull ListingArguments args)

    int update(long id, @NonNull @NotBlank String name)
}

And the implementation using GenreMapper:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/genre/GenreRepositoryImpl.groovy
package example.micronaut.genre

import example.micronaut.ListingArguments
import example.micronaut.domain.Genre
import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull
import jakarta.inject.Singleton

import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank
import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull

@CompileStatic
@Singleton (1)
class GenreRepositoryImpl implements GenreRepository {

    private final GenreMapper genreMapper

    GenreRepositoryImpl(GenreMapper genreMapper) {
        this.genreMapper = genreMapper
    }

    @Override
    @NonNull
    Optional<Genre> findById(long id) {
        Optional.ofNullable(genreMapper.findById(id))
    }

    @Override
    @NonNull
    Genre save(@NonNull @NotBlank String name) {
        Genre genre = new Genre(name)
        genreMapper.save(genre)
        genre
    }

    @Override
    void deleteById(long id) {
        findById(id).ifPresent(genre -> genreMapper.deleteById(id))
    }

    @NonNull
    List<Genre> findAll(@NonNull @NotNull ListingArguments args) {

        if (args.max.present && args.sort.present && args.offset.present && args.order.present) {
            return genreMapper.findAllByOffsetAndMaxAndSortAndOrder(
                    args.offset.get(),
                    args.max.get(),
                    args.sort.get(),
                    args.order.get())
        }

        if (args.max.present && args.offset.present && (!args.sort.present || !args.order.present)) {
            return genreMapper.findAllByOffsetAndMax(args.offset.get(), args.max.get());
        }

        if ((!args.max.present || !args.offset.present) && args.sort.present && args.order.present) {
            return genreMapper.findAllBySortAndOrder(args.sort.get(), args.order.get());
        }

        genreMapper.findAll()
    }

    @Override
    int update(long id, @NonNull @NotBlank String name) {
        genreMapper.update(id, name)
        -1
    }
}

4.5. Controller

Micronaut validation is built on the standard framework – JSR 380, also known as Bean Validation 2.0.

Hibernate Validator is a reference implementation of the validation API. Micronaut has built-in support for validation of beans that are annotated with javax.validation annotations.

The necessary dependencies are included by default when creating a new application, so you don’t need to add anything else.

Create two classes to encapsulate Save and Update operations:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/genre/GenreSaveCommand.groovy
package example.micronaut.genre

import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Introspected
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull

import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank

@CompileStatic
@Introspected
class GenreSaveCommand {

    @NotBlank
    @NonNull
    String name

    GenreSaveCommand(@NonNull @NotBlank String name) {
        this.name = name
    }
}
src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/genre/GenreUpdateCommand.groovy
package example.micronaut.genre

import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Introspected
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull

import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank

@CompileStatic
@Introspected
class GenreUpdateCommand {

    long id

    @NotBlank
    @NonNull
    String name

    GenreUpdateCommand(long id, @NonNull @NotBlank String name) {
        this.id = id
        this.name = name
    }
}

Create a POJO to encapsulate Sorting and Pagination:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/ListingArguments.groovy
package example.micronaut

import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Introspected
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.Nullable
import io.micronaut.http.uri.UriBuilder

import javax.validation.constraints.Pattern
import javax.validation.constraints.Positive
import javax.validation.constraints.PositiveOrZero

@CompileStatic
@Introspected
class ListingArguments {

    @PositiveOrZero
    private Integer offset = 0

    @Nullable
    @Positive
    private Integer max

    @Nullable
    @Pattern(regexp = "id|name")
    private String sort

    @Pattern(regexp = "asc|ASC|desc|DESC")
    @Nullable
    private String order

    ListingArguments() {
    }

    Optional<Integer> getOffset() {
        Optional.ofNullable(offset)
    }

    void setOffset(@Nullable Integer offset) {
        this.offset = offset
    }

    Optional<Integer> getMax() {
        Optional.ofNullable(max)
    }

    void setMax(@Nullable Integer max) {
        this.max = max
    }

    Optional<String> getSort() {
        Optional.ofNullable(sort)
    }

    void setSort(@Nullable String sort) {
        this.sort = sort
    }

    Optional<String> getOrder() {
        Optional.ofNullable(order)
    }

    void setOrder(@Nullable String order) {
        this.order = order
    }

    static Builder builder() {
        new Builder()
    }

    URI of(UriBuilder uriBuilder) {
        if (max != null) {
            uriBuilder.queryParam("max", max)
        }
        if (order != null) {
            uriBuilder.queryParam("order", order)
        }
        if (offset != null) {
            uriBuilder.queryParam("offset", offset)
        }
        if (sort != null) {
            uriBuilder.queryParam("sort", sort)
        }
        uriBuilder.build()
    }

    static final class Builder {
        private final ListingArguments args = new ListingArguments()

        private Builder() {
        }

        Builder max(int max) {
            args.max = max
            this
        }

        Builder sort(String sort) {
            args.sort = sort
            this
        }

        Builder order(String order) {
            args.order = order
            this
        }

        Builder offset(int offset) {
            args.offset = offset
            this
        }

        ListingArguments build() {
            args
        }
    }
}

Create a ConfigurationProperties class to encapsulate the configuration of the default max value.

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/ApplicationConfiguration.groovy
package example.micronaut

interface ApplicationConfiguration {

    int getMax()
}
src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/ApplicationConfigurationProperties.groovy
package example.micronaut

import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.ConfigurationProperties

@CompileStatic
@ConfigurationProperties("application") (1)
class ApplicationConfigurationProperties implements ApplicationConfiguration {

    private final int DEFAULT_MAX = 10

    int max = DEFAULT_MAX
}

Create GenreController, a controller which exposes a resource with the common CRUD operations:

src/main/groovy/example/micronaut/GenreController.groovy
package example.micronaut

import example.micronaut.domain.Genre
import example.micronaut.genre.GenreRepository
import example.micronaut.genre.GenreSaveCommand
import example.micronaut.genre.GenreUpdateCommand
import groovy.transform.CompileStatic
import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Body
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Delete
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Post
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Put

import javax.validation.Valid

import static io.micronaut.http.HttpHeaders.LOCATION

@CompileStatic
@Controller('/genres') (1)
class GenreController {

    private final GenreRepository genreRepository

    GenreController(GenreRepository genreRepository) { (2)
        this.genreRepository = genreRepository
    }

    @Get('/{id}') (3)
    Genre show(long id) {
        genreRepository.findById(id).orElse(null) (4)
    }

    @Put (5)
    HttpResponse<?> update(@Body @Valid GenreUpdateCommand command) { (6)
        genreRepository.update(command.id, command.name)
        HttpResponse
                .noContent()
                .header(LOCATION, location(command.id).path) (7)
    }

    @Get(value = '/list{?args*}') (8)
    List<Genre> list(@Valid ListingArguments args) {
        genreRepository.findAll(args)
    }

    @Post (9)
    HttpResponse<Genre> save(@Body @Valid GenreSaveCommand cmd) {
        Genre genre = genreRepository.save(cmd.name)

        HttpResponse
                .created(genre)
                .headers(headers -> headers.location(location(genre.id)))
    }

    @Delete('/{id}') (10)
    HttpResponse<?> delete(Long id) {
        genreRepository.deleteById(id)
        HttpResponse.noContent()
    }

    private URI location(Long id) {
        URI.create('/genres/' + id)
    }
}
1 The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /genres.
2 Constructor injection.
3 Maps a GET request to /genres/{id} which attempts to show a genre. This illustrates the use of a URL path variable.
4 Returning null when the genre doesn’t exist makes the Micronaut framework respond with 404 (not found).
5 Maps a PUT request to /genres which attempts to update a genre.
6 Add @Valid to any method parameter which requires validation. Use a POJO supplied as a JSON payload in the request to populate command.
7 It is easy to add custom headers to the response.
8 Maps a GET request to /genres which returns a list of genres. This mapping illustrates optional URL parameters.
9 Maps a POST request to /genres which attempts to save a genre.
10 Maps a DELETE request to /genres/{id} which attempts to remove a genre. This illustrates the use of a URL path variable.

4.6. Database Migration with Flyway

We need a way to create the database schema. For that, we use Micronaut integration with Flyway.

Flyway automates schema changes, significantly simplifying schema management tasks, such as migrating, rolling back, and reproducing in multiple environments.

Add the following snippet to include the necessary dependencies:

build.gradle
implementation("io.micronaut.flyway:micronaut-flyway")
runtimeOnly("org.flywaydb:flyway-mysql")

We will enable Flyway in application.yml and configure it to perform migrations on one of the defined data sources.

src/main/resources/application.yml
flyway:
  datasources:
    default:
      enabled: true (1)
1 Enable Flyway for the default datasource.
Configuring multiple data sources is as simple as enabling Flyway for each one. You can also specify directories that will be used for migrating each data source. Review the Micronaut Flyway documentation for additional details.

Flyway migration will be automatically triggered before your Micronaut application starts. Flyway will read migration commands in the resources/db/migration/ directory, execute them if necessary, and verify that the configured data source is consistent with them.

Create the following migration files with the database schema creation:

src/main/resources/db/migration/V1__schema.sql
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS GENRE;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS BOOK;

CREATE TABLE GENRE (
  id    BIGINT SERIAL PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
  name VARCHAR(255)              NOT NULL UNIQUE
);

CREATE TABLE BOOK (
  id    BIGINT SERIAL PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
  name VARCHAR(255)              NOT NULL,
  isbn VARCHAR(255)              NOT NULL,
  genre_id BIGINT,
    constraint FKM1T3YVW5I7OLWDF32CWUUL7TA
    foreign key (GENRE_ID) references GENRE
);

During application startup, Flyway will execute the SQL file and create the schema needed for the application.

4.7. Tests

Create a JUnit test to verify the CRUD operations:

src/test/groovy/example/micronaut/GenreControllerSpec.groovy
package example.micronaut

import example.micronaut.domain.Genre
import example.micronaut.genre.GenreSaveCommand
import example.micronaut.genre.GenreUpdateCommand
import io.micronaut.core.type.Argument
import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest
import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse
import io.micronaut.http.client.BlockingHttpClient
import io.micronaut.http.client.HttpClient
import io.micronaut.http.client.annotation.Client
import io.micronaut.http.client.exceptions.HttpClientResponseException
import io.micronaut.http.uri.UriBuilder
import io.micronaut.http.uri.UriTemplate
import io.micronaut.test.extensions.spock.annotation.MicronautTest
import jakarta.inject.Inject
import spock.lang.Specification

import static io.micronaut.http.HttpHeaders.LOCATION
import static io.micronaut.http.HttpStatus.CREATED
import static io.micronaut.http.HttpStatus.NO_CONTENT

@MicronautTest (1)
class GenreControllerSpec extends Specification {

    @Inject
    @Client('/')
    HttpClient httpClient (2)

    void supplyAnInvalidOrderTriggersValidationFailure() {
        when:
        client.retrieve(
                HttpRequest.GET('/genres/list?order=foo'),
                Argument.of(List, Genre))

        then:
        thrown(HttpClientResponseException)
    }

    void testFindNonExistingGenreReturns404() {
        when:
        client.retrieve(HttpRequest.GET('/genres/99'), Argument.of(Genre))

        then:
        thrown(HttpClientResponseException)
    }

    void testGenreCrudOperations() {
        given:
        List<Long> genreIds = []

        when:
        HttpResponse<?> response = saveGenre('DevOps')
        genreIds << entityId(response)

        then:
        CREATED == response.status

        when:
        response = saveGenre('Microservices') (3)

        then:
        CREATED == response.status

        when:
        Long id = entityId(response)
        genreIds.add(id)
        Genre genre = show(id)

        then:
        'Microservices' == genre.name

        when:
        response = update(id, 'Micro-services')

        then:
        NO_CONTENT == response.status

        when:
        genre = show(id)

        then:
        'Micro-services' == genre.name

        when:
        List<Genre> genres = listGenres(ListingArguments.builder().build())

        then:
        2 == genres.size()

        when:
        genres = listGenres(ListingArguments.builder().max(1).build())

        then:
        1 == genres.size()
        'DevOps' == genres[0].name

        when:
        genres = listGenres(ListingArguments.builder().max(1).order('desc').sort('name').build())

        then:
        1 == genres.size()
        'Micro-services' == genres[0].name

        when:
        genres = listGenres(ListingArguments.builder().max(1).offset(10).build())

        then:
        0 == genres.size()

        cleanup:
        for (long genreId : genreIds) {
            response = delete(genreId)
            assert NO_CONTENT == response.status
        }
    }

    private List<Genre> listGenres(ListingArguments args) {
        URI uri = args.of(UriBuilder.of('/genres/list'))
        HttpRequest<?> request = HttpRequest.GET(uri)
        client.retrieve(request, Argument.of(List, Genre)) (4)
    }

    private Genre show(Long id) {
        String uri = UriTemplate.of('/genres/{id}').expand(id: id)
        HttpRequest<?> request = HttpRequest.GET(uri)
        client.retrieve(request, Genre)
    }

    private HttpResponse<?> update(Long id, String name) {
        HttpRequest<?> request = HttpRequest.PUT('/genres', new GenreUpdateCommand(id, name))
        client.exchange(request) (5)
    }

    private HttpResponse<?> delete(Long id) {
        HttpRequest<?> request = HttpRequest.DELETE('/genres/' + id)
        client.exchange(request)
    }

    private Long entityId(HttpResponse<?> response) {
        String value = response.header(LOCATION)
        if (value == null) {
            return null
        }

        String path = '/genres/'
        int index = value.indexOf(path)
        if (index != -1) {
            return value.substring(index + path.length()) as long
        }

        null
    }

    private BlockingHttpClient getClient() {
        httpClient.toBlocking()
    }

    private HttpResponse<?> saveGenre(String genre) {
        HttpRequest<?> request = HttpRequest.POST('/genres', new GenreSaveCommand(genre)) (3)
        client.exchange(request)
    }
}
1 Annotate the class with @MicronautTest so the Micronaut framework will initialize the application context and the embedded server. More info.
2 Inject the HttpClient bean and point it to the embedded server.
3 Creating HTTP Requests is easy thanks to the Micronaut framework fluid API.
4 If you care just about the object in the response use retrieve.
5 Sometimes, receiving just the object is not enough and you need information about the response. In this case, instead of retrieve you should use the exchange method.

Run the tests:

./gradlew test

4.8. Running the App

5. Running the Application

To run the application, use the ./gradlew run command, which starts the application on port 8080.

We can use curl to check that everything works as expected:

curl http://localhost:8080/genres/list
[]
curl -X POST -d '{"name":"Sci-fi"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" http://localhost:8080/genres
{"id":1,"name":"Sci-fi"}
curl -X POST -d '{"name":"Science"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" http://localhost:8080/genres
{"id":2,"name":"Science"}
curl http://localhost:8080/genres/list
[{"id":1,"name":"Sci-fi"},{"id":2,"name":"Science"}]
curl -X DELETE http://localhost:8080/genres/1
curl http://localhost:8080/genres/list
[{"id":2,"name":"Science"}]

5.1. Next Steps

Read more about Configurations for Data Access section and Flyway support in the Micronaut framework documentation.

6. Help with the Micronaut Framework

The Micronaut Foundation sponsored the creation of this Guide. A variety of consulting and support services are available.