Send Emails with Amazon SES from the Micronaut Framework

Learn how to send emails with Amazon SES from a Micronaut application

Authors: Sergio del Amo

Micronaut Version: 3.7.0

1. Getting Started

In this guide, we will create a Micronaut application written in Java.

2. What you will need

To complete this guide, you will need the following:

  • Some time on your hands

  • A decent text editor or IDE

  • JDK 1.8 or greater installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

3. Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

4. Writing the Application

Create an application using the Micronaut Command Line Interface or with Micronaut Launch.

mn create-app example.micronaut.micronautguide \
    --features=graalvm,email-amazon-ses,aws-v2-sdk,reactor \
    --build=gradle --lang=java
If you don’t specify the --build argument, Gradle is used as the build tool.
If you don’t specify the --lang argument, Java is used as the language.

The previous command creates a Micronaut application with the default package example.micronaut in a directory named micronautguide.

If you use Micronaut Launch, select Micronaut Application as application type and add graalvm, email-amazon-ses, aws-v2-sdk, and reactor features.

If you have an existing Micronaut application and want to add the functionality described here, you can view the dependency and configuration changes from the specified features and apply those changes to your application.

4.1. Enable annotation Processing

If you use Java or Kotlin and IntelliJ IDEA, make sure to enable annotation processing.


4.2. Controller

Create a MailController class. This class uses a collaborator, emailSender, to send an email.

You can send emails asynchronously using the AysnEmailSender API or synchronously using the EmailSender API.

package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Body;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Post;
import io.micronaut.http.exceptions.HttpStatusException;
import org.reactivestreams.Publisher;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

import static;
import static io.micronaut.http.HttpStatus.UNPROCESSABLE_ENTITY;

@Controller("/mail") (1)
public class MailController {

    private static final Logger LOG = LoggerFactory.getLogger(MailController.class);

    private final AsyncEmailSender<SesRequest, SesResponse> emailSender;

    public MailController(AsyncEmailSender<SesRequest, SesResponse> emailSender) { (2)
        this.emailSender = emailSender;

    @Post("/send") (3)
    public Publisher<HttpResponse<?>> send(@Body("to") String to) { (4)
        return Mono.from(emailSender.sendAsync(Email.builder()
                        .subject("Sending email with Amazon SES is Fun")
                        .body("and <em>easy</em> to do anywhere with <strong>Micronaut Email</strong>", HTML)))
                .doOnNext(rsp -> {
                    if (rsp instanceof SendEmailResponse) {
              "message id: {}", ((SendEmailResponse) rsp).messageId());
                }).onErrorMap(EmailException.class, t -> new HttpStatusException(UNPROCESSABLE_ENTITY, "Email could not be sent"))
                .map(rsp -> HttpResponse.accepted()); (5)
1 The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /mail/send.
2 Use constructor injection to inject a bean of type AsyncEmailSender.
3 The @Post annotation maps the send method to an HTTP POST request on /mail/send.
4 You can use a qualifier within the HTTP request body. For example, you can use a reference to a nested JSON attribute.
5 Return 202 ACCEPTED as the result if the email delivery succeeds

4.3. Configuration

If you want to send every email with the same address, you can set it via configuration:

      email: 'john@micronaut.example'

This is possible thanks to Email Decorators.

4.4. AWS SES

Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES) is a cloud-based email-sending service designed to help digital marketers and application developers send marketing, notification, and transactional emails. It is a reliable, cost-effective service for businesses of all sizes that use email to keep in contact with their customers.

4.4.1. Dependency

Because we added the email-amazon-ses feature, the application contains the following dependency:


4.5. Micronaut AWS SDK v2

Micronaut Amazon SES integration uses Micronaut AWS SDK v2 integration.

Because we added the aws-v2-sdk feature, the application contains the following dependency:


Read about:

4.6. Test

Create a test bean that replaces the bean of type AsyncTransactionalEmailSender.

package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Replaces;
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Requires;
import jakarta.inject.Named;
import jakarta.inject.Singleton;
import org.reactivestreams.Publisher;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

import javax.validation.Valid;
import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.function.Consumer;

@Requires(property = "", value = "MailControllerTest") (1)
class EmailSenderReplacement implements AsyncTransactionalEmailSender<SesRequest, SesResponse> {

    private final List<Email> emails = new ArrayList<>();

    public String getName() {
        return AsyncSesEmailSender.NAME;

    public Publisher<SesResponse> sendAsync(@NotNull @Valid Email email,
                                            @NotNull Consumer<SesRequest> emailRequest) throws EmailException {
        return Mono.just(SendEmailResponse.builder().messageId("xxx-yyy-zzz").build());

    public List<Email> getEmails() {
        return emails;
1 Combine @Requires and @Property to avoid bean pollution.

Write a test that uses EmailSenderReplacement to verify that the contents of the email match expectations.

package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.context.BeanContext;
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Property;
import io.micronaut.core.util.CollectionUtils;
import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest;
import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse;
import io.micronaut.http.client.HttpClient;
import io.micronaut.http.client.annotation.Client;
import io.micronaut.test.extensions.junit5.annotation.MicronautTest;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import java.util.Collections;

import static io.micronaut.http.HttpStatus.ACCEPTED;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertNotNull;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTrue;

@Property(name = "", value = "MailControllerTest") (1)
@MicronautTest (2)
public class MailControllerTest {

    HttpClient httpClient; (3)

    BeanContext beanContext;

    void getMailSendEndpointSendsAnEmail() {

        HttpResponse<?> response = httpClient.toBlocking().exchange(
                Collections.singletonMap("to", "johnsnow@micronaut.example")));
        assertEquals(ACCEPTED, response.status());

        AsyncTransactionalEmailSender<?, ?> sender = beanContext.getBean(AsyncTransactionalEmailSender.class);
        assertTrue(sender instanceof EmailSenderReplacement);

        EmailSenderReplacement sendgridSender = (EmailSenderReplacement) sender;
        assertEquals(1, sendgridSender.getEmails().size());

        Email email = sendgridSender.getEmails().get(0);
        assertEquals(email.getFrom().getEmail(), "john@micronaut.example");
        assertEquals(email.getTo().stream().findFirst().get().getEmail(), "johnsnow@micronaut.example");
        assertEquals(email.getSubject(), "Sending email with Amazon SES is Fun");
        assertEquals(email.getBody().get(BodyType.HTML).get(), "and <em>easy</em> to do anywhere with <strong>Micronaut Email</strong>");
1 Combine @Requires and @Property to avoid bean pollution.
2 Annotate the class with @MicronautTest so the Micronaut framework will initialize the application context and the embedded server. More info.
3 Inject the HttpClient bean and point it to the embedded server.

5. Testing the Application

To run the tests:

./gradlew test

Then open build/reports/tests/test/index.html in a browser to see the results.

5.1. Running the Application

5.1.1. From email address

Change the property to match your Amazon SES verified sender.

5.1.2. Supply AWS Credentials

An easy way to supply AWS Credentials is to define the following environment variables:

export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=xxx

5.1.3. Run

To run the application, use the ./gradlew run command, which starts the application on port 8080.

5.1.4. Invoke

curl -d '{"to":"john@micronaut.example"}'
     -H "Content-Type: application/json"
     -X POST http://localhost:8080/mail/send

6. Next steps

Explore more features with Micronaut Guides.

Learn more about Micronaut Email integration.

7. Help with the Micronaut Framework

The Micronaut Foundation sponsored the creation of this Guide. A variety of consulting and support services are available.