Send Emails with SendGrid from the Micronaut Framework

Learn how to send emails with SendGrid from a Micronaut application

Authors: Sergio del Amo

Micronaut Version: 3.7.0

1. Getting Started

In this guide, we will create a Micronaut application written in Java.

2. What you will need

To complete this guide, you will need the following:

  • Some time on your hands

  • A decent text editor or IDE

  • JDK 1.8 or greater installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

3. Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

4. Writing the Application

Create an application using the Micronaut Command Line Interface or with Micronaut Launch.

mn create-app example.micronaut.micronautguide \
    --features=email-sendgrid,reactor \
    --build=maven --lang=java
If you don’t specify the --build argument, Gradle is used as the build tool.
If you don’t specify the --lang argument, Java is used as the language.

The previous command creates a Micronaut application with the default package example.micronaut in a directory named micronautguide.

If you use Micronaut Launch, select Micronaut Application as application type and add email-sendgrid, and reactor features.

If you have an existing Micronaut application and want to add the functionality described here, you can view the dependency and configuration changes from the specified features and apply those changes to your application.

4.1. Enable annotation Processing

If you use Java or Kotlin and IntelliJ IDEA, make sure to enable annotation processing.

annotationprocessorsintellij

4.2. Controller

Create a MailController class. This class uses a collaborator, emailSender, to send an email.

You can send emails asynchronously using the AysnEmailSender API or synchronously using the EmailSender API.

src/main/java/example/micronaut/MailController.java
package example.micronaut;

import com.sendgrid.Request;
import com.sendgrid.Response;
import io.micronaut.email.AsyncEmailSender;
import io.micronaut.email.Email;
import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Body;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Post;
import org.reactivestreams.Publisher;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

import static io.micronaut.email.BodyType.HTML;

@Controller("/mail") (1)
public class MailController {

    private static final Logger LOG = LoggerFactory.getLogger(MailController.class);

    private final AsyncEmailSender<Request, Response> emailSender;

    public MailController(AsyncEmailSender<Request, Response> emailSender) { (2)
        this.emailSender = emailSender;
    }

    @Post("/send") (3)
    public Publisher<HttpResponse<?>> send(@Body("to") String to) { (4)
        return Mono.from(emailSender.sendAsync(Email.builder()
                        .to(to)
                        .subject("Sending email with Twilio Sendgrid is Fun")
                        .body("and <em>easy</em> to do anywhere with <strong>Micronaut Email</strong>", HTML)))
                .doOnNext(rsp -> {
                    LOG.info("response status {}\nresponse body {}\nresponse headers {}",
                            rsp.getStatusCode(), rsp.getBody(), rsp.getHeaders());
                }).map(rsp -> rsp.getStatusCode() >= 400 ?
                        HttpResponse.unprocessableEntity() :
                        HttpResponse.accepted()); (5)
    }
}
1 The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /mail/send.
2 Use constructor injection to inject a bean of type AsyncEmailSender.
3 The @Post annotation maps the send method to an HTTP POST request on /mail/send.
4 You can use a qualifier within the HTTP request body. For example, you can use a reference to a nested JSON attribute.
5 Return 202 ACCEPTED as the result if the email delivery succeeds

4.3. Configuration

If you want to send every email with the same address, you can set it via configuration:

src/main/resources/application.yml
---
micronaut:
  email:
    from:
      email: 'john@micronaut.example'

This is possible thanks to Email Decorators.

4.4. SendGrid

SendGrid is a transactional email service.

SendGrid is responsible for sending billions of emails for some of the best and brightest companies in the world.

4.4.1. SendGrid API Key

To use the Micronaut Sendgrid integration, you need an API Key.

You need to configure the sendgrid.api-key property. However, don’t put it in application.yml. It’s a password. Expose it via the SENDGRID_API_KEY environment variable, using a secret manager or create an environment specific configuration file that won’t be included in source version control.

4.4.2. Dependency

Because we added the email-sendgrid feature, the application contains the following dependency:

pom.xml
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.micronaut.email</groupId>
    <artifactId>micronaut-email-sendgrid</artifactId>
    <scope>compile</scope>
</dependency>

4.5. Test

Create a test bean that replaces the bean of type AsyncTransactionalEmailSender.

src/test/java/example/micronaut/EmailSenderReplacement.java
package example.micronaut;

import com.sendgrid.Request;
import com.sendgrid.Response;
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Replaces;
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Requires;
import io.micronaut.email.AsyncEmailSender;
import io.micronaut.email.AsyncTransactionalEmailSender;
import io.micronaut.email.Email;
import io.micronaut.email.EmailException;
import jakarta.inject.Named;
import jakarta.inject.Singleton;
import org.reactivestreams.Publisher;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

import javax.validation.Valid;
import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.function.Consumer;

import static io.micronaut.http.HttpStatus.ACCEPTED;

@Requires(property = "spec.name", value = "MailControllerTest") (1)
@Singleton
@Replaces(AsyncEmailSender.class)
@Named(EmailSenderReplacement.NAME)
class EmailSenderReplacement implements AsyncTransactionalEmailSender<Request, Response> {

    public static final String NAME = "sendgrid";

    final List<Email> emails = new ArrayList<>();

    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return NAME;
    }

    @Override
    public Publisher<Response> sendAsync(@NotNull @Valid Email email,
                                         @NotNull Consumer<Request> emailRequest) throws EmailException {
        emails.add(email);
        Response response = new Response();
        response.setStatusCode(ACCEPTED.getCode());
        return Mono.just(response);
    }

    public List<Email> getEmails() {
        return emails;
    }
}
1 Combine @Requires and @Property to avoid bean pollution.

Write a test that uses EmailSenderReplacement to verify that the contents of the email match expectations.

src/test/java/example/micronaut/MailControllerTest.java
package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.context.BeanContext;
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Property;
import io.micronaut.core.util.CollectionUtils;
import io.micronaut.email.AsyncTransactionalEmailSender;
import io.micronaut.email.Email;
import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest;
import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse;
import io.micronaut.http.client.HttpClient;
import io.micronaut.http.client.annotation.Client;
import io.micronaut.test.extensions.junit5.annotation.MicronautTest;
import jakarta.inject.Inject;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import java.util.Collections;

import static io.micronaut.email.BodyType.HTML;
import static io.micronaut.http.HttpStatus.ACCEPTED;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertNotNull;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTrue;

@Property(name = "spec.name", value = "MailControllerTest") (1)
@MicronautTest (2)
public class MailControllerTest {

    @Inject
    @Client("/")
    HttpClient httpClient; (3)

    @Inject
    BeanContext beanContext;

    @Test
    void getMailSendEndpointSendsAnEmail() {

        HttpResponse<?> response = httpClient.toBlocking().exchange(
                HttpRequest.POST("/mail/send",
                Collections.singletonMap("to", "johnsnow@micronaut.example")));
        assertEquals(ACCEPTED, response.status());

        AsyncTransactionalEmailSender<?, ?> sender = beanContext.getBean(AsyncTransactionalEmailSender.class);
        assertTrue(sender instanceof EmailSenderReplacement);

        EmailSenderReplacement sendgridSender = (EmailSenderReplacement) sender;
        assertTrue(CollectionUtils.isNotEmpty(sendgridSender.emails));
        assertEquals(1, sendgridSender.emails.size());

        Email email = sendgridSender.emails.get(0);
        assertEquals(email.getFrom().getEmail(), "john@micronaut.example");
        assertNotNull(email.getTo());
        assertTrue(email.getTo().stream().findFirst().isPresent());
        assertEquals(email.getTo().stream().findFirst().get().getEmail(), "johnsnow@micronaut.example");
        assertEquals(email.getSubject(), "Sending email with Twilio Sendgrid is Fun");
        assertNotNull(email.getBody());
        assertTrue(email.getBody().get(HTML).isPresent());
        assertEquals(email.getBody().get(HTML).get(), "and <em>easy</em> to do anywhere with <strong>Micronaut Email</strong>");
    }
}
1 Combine @Requires and @Property to avoid bean pollution.
2 Annotate the class with @MicronautTest so the Micronaut framework will initialize the application context and the embedded server. More info.
3 Inject the HttpClient bean and point it to the embedded server.

5. Testing the Application

To run the tests:

./mvnw test

6. Running the Application

6.1. API Key

Set the SendGrid API Key as an environment variable before you run the application:

export SENDGRID_API_KEY=xxx

6.2. From email address

Change the property micronaut.email.from.email to match your SendGrid configuration.

6.3. Run

To run the application, use the ./mvnw mn:run command, which starts the application on port 8080.

6.4. Invoke

curl -d '{"to":"john@micronaut.example"}'
     -H "Content-Type: application/json"
     -X POST http://localhost:8080/mail/send

7. Next steps

Explore more features with Micronaut Guides.

Learn more about Micronaut Email integration.

8. Help with the Micronaut Framework

The Micronaut Foundation sponsored the creation of this Guide. A variety of consulting and support services are available.