Deploy GraalVM Native Image to Google Cloud Run

Deploy a GraalVM Native Image of a Micronaut application to Google Cloud Run - a fully managed serverless platform for containerized applications.

Authors: Sergio del Amo

Micronaut Version: 3.4.4

1. Getting Started

In this guide, we will create a Micronaut application written in Java.

You are going to deploy a GraalVM Native Image of a Micronaut application to Google Cloud Run.

Develop and deploy highly scalable containerized applications on a fully managed serverless platform.

2. What you will need

To complete this guide, you will need the following:

3. Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

4. Writing the Application

Create an application using the Micronaut Command Line Interface or with Micronaut Launch.

mn create-app example.micronaut.micronautguide --build=gradle --lang=java
If you don’t specify the --build argument, Gradle is used as the build tool.
If you don’t specify the --lang argument, Java is used as the language.

The previous command creates a Micronaut application with the default package example.micronaut in a directory named micronautguide.

4.1. Enable annotation Processing

If you use Java or Kotlin and IntelliJ IDEA, make sure to enable annotation processing.


4.2. Controller

In order to create a microservice that responds with "Hello World" you first need a controller.

Create a Controller:

package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.http.MediaType;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Produces;

@Controller("/hello") (1)
public class HelloController {
    @Get (2)
    @Produces(MediaType.TEXT_PLAIN) (3)
    public String index() {
        return "Hello World"; (4)
1 The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /hello
2 The @Get annotation maps the index method to an HTTP GET request on /hello
3 By default, a Micronaut response uses application/json as Content-Type. We are returning a String, not a JSON object, so we set it to text/plain.
4 A String "Hello World" is returned as the result

4.3. Test

Create a test to verify that when you make a GET request to /hello you get Hello World as a response:

package example.micronaut;

import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertNotNull;

import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest;
import io.micronaut.http.client.HttpClient;
import io.micronaut.http.client.annotation.Client;
import io.micronaut.test.extensions.junit5.annotation.MicronautTest;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;

import jakarta.inject.Inject;

@MicronautTest (1)
public class HelloControllerTest {

    @Client("/")  (2)
    HttpClient client;

    public void testHello() {
        HttpRequest<String> request = HttpRequest.GET("/hello");  (3)
        String body = client.toBlocking().retrieve(request);

        assertEquals("Hello World", body);
1 Annotate the class with @MicronautTest so the Micronaut framework will initialize the application context and the embedded server. More info.
2 Inject the HttpClient bean and point it to the embedded server.
3 Creating HTTP Requests is easy thanks to the Micronaut framework fluid API.

5. Google Cloud Platform

5.1. Google Cloud Platform Project

Create a new project:

gcp project

We named the project micronaut-guides

5.2. Cloud SDK

Install Cloud SDK for your operating system.

Cloud SDK includes the gcloud command-line tool. Run the init command in your terminal:

gcloud init

Log in to your Google Cloud Platform:

gcloud auth login

Change your project:

gcloud config set project micronaut-guides

My Project ID is micronaut-guides. You can get the IDs of your projects by running the command gcloud projects list.

6. Configure Google Cloud Docker

Run auth configure-docker via the Google Cloud CLI:

> gcloud auth configure-docker
Adding credentials for all GCR repositories.
WARNING: A long list of credential helpers may cause delays running 'docker build'. We recommend passing the registry name to configure only the registry you are using.
After update, the following will be written to your Docker config file
 located at [~/.docker/config.json]:
  "credHelpers": {
    "": "gcloud",
    "": "gcloud",
    "": "gcloud",
    "": "gcloud",
    "": "gcloud",
    "": "gcloud"

7. Docker Push Native

Before attempting to push the image, make sure you run GraalVM JDK.

The easiest way to install GraalVM on Linux or Mac is to use

Java 11
sdk install java
If you still use Java 8, use the JDK11 version of GraalVM.
Java 17
sdk install java

For installation on Windows, or for manual installation on Linux or Mac, see the GraalVM Getting Started documentation.

After installing GraalVM, install the native-image component, which is not installed by default:

gu install native-image

Push the Docker image of your application to Google Cloud Container Registry.

Modify your Gradle build and configure the

dockerBuildNative {
    images = [""]
./gradlew dockerPushNative

The previous URL uses the pattern: Change it to use your Project ID.

You get an output such as:

Pushing image ''.

8. Google Cloud Deployment

You can deploy to Google Cloud Run via the CLI. Use the value you configured in your build as the image argument’s value.

gcloud run deploy \ \
    --platform managed \

You will see an output such as:

Service name (micronautguide):
Please specify a region:
 [22] us-central1
 [23] us-east1
 [24] us-east4
 [29] cancel
Please enter your numeric choice:  23

To make this the default region, run `gcloud config set run/region us-east1`.

Deploying container to Cloud Run service [micronautguide]
in project [micronaut-guides] region [us-east1]
✓ Deploying... Done.
  ✓ Creating Revision...
  ✓ Routing traffic...
  ✓ Setting IAM Policy...
Service [micronautguide] revision [micronautguide-00002-fat] has been deployed
 and is serving 100 percent of traffic at

9. Running the Application

curl -i
HTTP/2 200
content-type: text/plain
x-cloud-trace-context: 139f91d74bfe5d24a2770fca9abef1d7
date: Sat, 02 Oct 2021 07:18:52 GMT
server: Google Frontend
content-length: 11
alt-svc: h3=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-29=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-T051=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-Q050=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-Q046=":443"; ma=2592000,h3-Q043=":443"; ma=2592000,quic=":443"; ma=2592000; v="46,43"

Hello World

10. Next steps

You will probably want to deploy to Google Cloud Run from your CI server. Micronaut Launch contains feature github-workflow-google-cloud-run-graalvm, which adds a GitHub Actions Workflow that deploys a GraalVM Native image of a Micronaut application to Google Cloud Run from Google Container Registry.

Read more about:

11. Help with the Micronaut Framework

Object Computing, Inc. (OCI) sponsored the creation of this Guide. A variety of consulting and support services are available.