Secure a Micronaut application with Google

Learn how to create a Micronaut application and secure it with Google and provide authentication with OpenID Connect

Authors: Sergio del Amo

Micronaut Version: 3.2.7

1. Getting Started

In this guide, we will create a Micronaut application written in Java.

2. What you will need

To complete this guide, you will need the following:

  • Some time on your hands

  • A decent text editor or IDE

  • JDK 1.8 or greater installed with JAVA_HOME configured appropriately

3. Solution

We recommend that you follow the instructions in the next sections and create the application step by step. However, you can go right to the completed example.

4. Writing the Application

Create an application using the Micronaut Command Line Interface or with Micronaut Launch.

mn create-app example.micronaut.micronautguide --build=gradle --lang=java
If you don’t specify the --build argument, Gradle is used as the build tool.
If you don’t specify the --lang argument, Java is used as the language.

The previous command creates a Micronaut application with the default package example.micronaut in a directory named micronautguide.

4.1. Enable annotation Processing

If you use Java or Kotlin and IntelliJ IDEA, make sure to enable annotation processing.

annotationprocessorsintellij

4.2. Views

Although the Micronaut framework is primarily designed around message encoding / decoding, there are occasions where it is convenient to render a view on the server side.

To use Thymeleaf Java template engine to render views within a Micronaut application add the following dependency on your classpath.

build.gradle
implementation("io.micronaut.views:micronaut-views-thymeleaf")

4.3. OAuth 2.0

Visit https://console.developers.google.com and create a new project:

google 1

You will also need to create OAuth 2.0 credentials for the project since Google does not do that automatically. From the sidebar, click the Credentials tab, the click Create credentials and choose OAuth client ID from the dropdown.

google 2

The Google Console will prompt for some information about your application such as the product name, a home page, and a logo. On the next page, select Web Application type, and enter the redirect URL where the Micronaut application we will build next will wait for the callback.

google 4

You will then receive a client ID and secret.

google 3

To use OAuth 2.0 integration in your Micronaut application, add the following dependency:

build.gradle
implementation("io.micronaut.security:micronaut-security-oauth2")

Also add Micronaut JWT support dependencies:

build.gradle
implementation("io.micronaut.security:micronaut-security-jwt")

Add the following OAuth2 Configuration:

src/main/resources/application.yml
---
micronaut:
  security:
    authentication: idtoken (1)
    oauth2:
      clients:
        google: (2)
          client-id: '${OAUTH_CLIENT_ID:xxx}'  (3)
          client-secret: '${OAUTH_CLIENT_SECRET:yyy}' (4)
          openid:
            issuer: 'https://accounts.google.com' (5)
    endpoints:
      logout:
        get-allowed: true (6)
1 Set micronaut.security.authentication as idtoken. The idtoken provided by Google when the OAuth 2.0 Authorization code flow ends will be saved in a cookie. The id token is a signed JWT. For every request, the Micronaut framework extracts the JWT from the Cookie and validates the JWT signature with the remote Json Web Key Set exposed by Google. JWKS is exposed by the jws-uri entry of Google .well-known/openid-configuration
2 You can choose any name. The name you select, will be used in your routes. E.g. If you set google the login route for this OAuth 2.0 client is /oauth/login/google
3 Client Secret. See previous screenshot.
4 Client ID. See previous screenshot.
5 issuer URL. It allows the Micronaut framework to discover the configuration of the OpenID Connect server.
6 Accept GET request to the /logout endpoint.

The previous configuration uses several placeholders. You will need to set up OAUTH_CLIENT_ID, OAUTH_CLIENT_SECRET environment variables.

export OAUTH_CLIENT_ID=XXXXXXXXXX
export OAUTH_CLIENT_SECRET=YYYYYYYYYY

We want to use an Authorization Code grant type flow which it is described in the following diagram:

diagramm

4.4. Home

Create a controller to handle the requests to /. You will display the email of the authenticated person if any. Annotate the controller endpoint with @View since we will use a Thymeleaf template.

src/main/java/example/micronaut/HomeController.java
package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get;
import io.micronaut.security.annotation.Secured;
import io.micronaut.security.rules.SecurityRule;
import io.micronaut.views.View;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

@Controller (1)
public class HomeController {

    @Secured(SecurityRule.IS_ANONYMOUS) (2)
    @View("home") (3)
    @Get (4)
    public Map<String, Object> index() {
        return new HashMap<>();
    }
}
1 The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /
2 Annotate with io.micronaut.security.Secured to configure secured access. The SecurityRule.IS_ANONYMOUS expression will allow access without authentication.
3 Use View annotation to specify which template to use to render the response.
4 The @Get annotation maps the index method to GET / requests.

Create a thymeleaf template:

src/main/resources/views/home.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
<head>
    <title>Home</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Micronaut - Google example</h1>

<h2 th:if="${security}">username: <span th:text="${security.attributes.get('email')}"></span></h2>
<h2 th:unless="${security}">username: Anonymous</h2>

<nav>
    <ul>
        <li th:unless="${security}"><a href="/oauth/login/google">Enter</a></li>
        <li th:if="${security}"><a href="/logout">Logout</a></li>
    </ul>
</nav>
</body>
</html>

Also, note that we return an empty model in the controller. However, we are accessing security in the thymeleaf template.

5. Running the Application

To run the application, use the ./gradlew run command which starts the application on port 8080.

googlevideo

5.1. Custom ID token claims validation

Imagine you want to allow sign-in with Google but only to users' in your organization.

Google OAuth consent screen settings allows you to do that:

google 5

However, we could also achieve this programmatically. Google id token contains a claim named hd which stands for hosted domain.

We can create a configuration object:

src/main/java/example/micronaut/ApplicationConfiguration.java
package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull;

public interface ApplicationConfiguration {

    @NonNull
    String getHostedDomain();
}

Backed by a @ConfigurationProperties annotated class:

src/main/java/example/micronaut/ApplicationConfigurationProperties.java
package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.ConfigurationProperties;
import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Requires;
import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull;

@Requires(property = "app.hosted-domain")
@ConfigurationProperties("app")
public class ApplicationConfigurationProperties implements ApplicationConfiguration {

    @NonNull
    private String hostedDomain;

    public void setHostedDomain(@NonNull String hostedDomain) {
        this.hostedDomain = hostedDomain;
    }

    @Override
    @NonNull
    public String getHostedDomain() {
        return hostedDomain;
    }
}

and then implement a OpenIdClaimsValidator bean. The Micronaut framework validates the id token against every bean of type OpenIdClaimsValidator. If the id token hd claim does not match the value configured, it is considered invalid.

src/main/java/example/micronaut/HostedDomainClaimValidator.java
package example.micronaut;

import io.micronaut.context.annotation.Requires;
import io.micronaut.security.oauth2.client.OpenIdProviderMetadata;
import io.micronaut.security.oauth2.configuration.OauthClientConfiguration;
import io.micronaut.security.oauth2.endpoint.token.response.OpenIdClaims;
import io.micronaut.security.oauth2.endpoint.token.response.validation.OpenIdClaimsValidator;

import jakarta.inject.Singleton;

@Requires(beans = ApplicationConfiguration.class)
@Singleton
public class HostedDomainClaimValidator implements OpenIdClaimsValidator {

    public static final String HOSTED_DOMAIN_CLAIM = "hd";

    private final String hostedDomain;

    public HostedDomainClaimValidator(ApplicationConfiguration applicationConfiguration) {
        this.hostedDomain = applicationConfiguration.getHostedDomain();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean validate(OpenIdClaims claims,
                            OauthClientConfiguration clientConfiguration,
                            OpenIdProviderMetadata providerMetadata) {
        Object hd = claims.get(HOSTED_DOMAIN_CLAIM);
        return hd instanceof String && ((String) hd).equalsIgnoreCase(hostedDomain);
    }
}

Add to src/main/resources/application.yaml

app:
  hosted-domain: 'objectcomputing.com'

if you start the application, you will only be able to sign in with a Google Account within the OCI organization.

6. Generate a Micronaut Application Native Image with GraalVM

We will use GraalVM, the polyglot embeddable virtual machine, to generate a native image of our Micronaut application.

Compiling native images ahead of time with GraalVM improves startup time and reduces the memory footprint of JVM-based applications.

Only Java and Kotlin projects support using GraalVM’s native-image tool. Groovy relies heavily on reflection, which is only partially supported by GraalVM.

6.1. Native image generation

The easiest way to install GraalVM on Linux or Mac is to use SDKMan.io.

Java 11
$ sdk install java 21.3.0.r11-grl
If you still use Java 8, use the JDK11 version of GraalVM.
Java 17
$ sdk install java 21.3.0.r17-grl

For installation on Windows, or for manual installation on Linux or Mac, see the GraalVM Getting Started documentation.

After installing GraalVM, install the native-image component, which is not installed by default:

gu install native-image

To generate a native image using Gradle, run:

./gradlew nativeCompile

The native image is created in build/native/nativeCompile directory and can be run with build/native/nativeCompile/application.

It is possible to customize the name of the native image or pass additional parameters to GraalVM:

build.gradle
graalvmNative {
    binaries {
        main {
            imageName.set('mn-graalvm-application') (1)
            buildArgs.add('--verbose') (2)
        }
    }
}
1 The native image name will now be mn-graalvm-application
2 It is possible to pass extra arguments to build the native image

After you execute the native image, navigate to localhost:8080 and authenticate with Google.

7. Next steps

Read Micronaut OAuth 2.0 documentation to learn more.

8. Help with the Micronaut Framework

Object Computing, Inc. (OCI) sponsored the creation of this Guide. A variety of consulting and support services are available.